The Elements of Teaching

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Professional learning moves vision, framework, and performance standards into action. Student success depends on effective teaching— not just occasionally, but every day in every classroom and school. Effective teaching occurs best when all education stakeholders, including parents, policymakers, community members, and educators, share responsibility for continuous improvement and student achievement. For teachers in classrooms, effective professional learning is the single most powerful pathway to promote continuous improvement in teaching. Consistently great teaching — every day, in every classroom, and in every school — emerges from a clear vision for teaching and learning.

This vision is then translated into an instructional framework that details rigorous outcomes for student and educator performance. The framework and outcomes form the basis for the system for professional learning that makes them possible. A vision for teaching and learning describes how students experience learning and the role of teaching in achieving that vision. Such a vision is grounded in learning theories and models selected to explain how learning happens, who the learners are, and the context in which students learn.

The following sample vision, based on the work of a national task force, describes teaching and learning based on the possibilities available through technology. Once a district establishes a vision, an instructional framework moves the vision from a dream to reality by describing how to achieve it.

She has grown up in a world where learning is as accessible through technologies at home as it is in the classroom, and digital content is as real to her as paper, lab equipment, or textbooks. At school, she and her classmates engage in creative problem-solving activities by manipulating simulations in a virtual laboratory or by downloading and analyzing visualizations of real-time data from remote sensors.

Away from the classroom, she has seamless access to school materials and homework assignments using inexpensive mobile technologies. She continues to collaborate with her classmates in virtual environments that allow not only social interaction but also rich connections with a wealth of supplementary content. Whether an instructional framework is detailed or simple, it guides instructional decisions and builds accountability and consistency into learning experiences to improve results for students.

See the sidebar below for examples of what such frameworks might include. Visions for teaching and learning and instructional frameworks must be coupled with rigorous outcomes for student learning that specify what students are expected to know and be able to do as well as performance standards for educators. The Common Core State Standards in English language arts and mathematics become an essential component of effective teaching because they specify the expectations for student learning.

Without clearly articulated outcomes, teaching may be fragmented or unfocused. These standards have been fully adopted in 44 states and the District of Columbia and partially adopted in one additional state; variations of these standards exist in other states or in individual school systems. Generating a vision, developing an instructional framework, and delineating student learning outcomes by themselves are insufficient to produce effective teaching.

Effective teaching requires not only explicit performance standards for educators but also processes for improving and assessing effective practice.

Performance standards for teachers define instructional expectations and inform the individual improvement and criteria for measuring effectiveness. The Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium InTASC , a collaborative of more than 30 states, provides model teacher standards for individual states and districts to use in developing their own performance standards Council of Chief State School Officers, These standards contribute to a rich vision for leadership, teaching, and learning to establish a process of continuous improvement.

Essential Aspects of Effective Teaching | Teaching Commons

See the diagram that demonstrates this relationship on p. Effective teaching emerges from a vision for teaching and learning, an instructional framework, standards for student learning, and performance expectations for educators coupled with a convergence of policy, planning, and goals at the state, school system, and school levels. Educators, policymakers, community members, and decision makers work collaboratively to develop and implement these components that serve as the backbone of effective teaching.

Yet without professional learning to support implementation, these components are relegated to words on pages rather than actions in classrooms. Effective teaching is possible in every classroom by ensuring every educator experiences substantive professional learning within a culture of collaboration and shared accountability. Effectiveness in teaching is a journey, rather than a destination.

Each year, teachers experience new challenges to refine and expand their teaching practices. Each year, teachers face new students with different learning needs. They strive to implement new technologies in their classrooms to accelerate learning. Benchmarks for student learning continue to change. New research on effective instruction is released.

New colleagues and leaders join the faculty to support teaching practice and student learning. Systems of professional learning are the only way to ensure these challenges become opportunities to improve student and educator performance. Absent professional learning, teachers lack access to the information and support they need to refine and enrich teaching throughout their career.

Professional learning is the only strategy in school systems that moves the vision, instructional framework, standards for students, and standards for educators into action. Effective professional learning for effective teaching has seven core attributes, which Learning Forward has defined as Standards for Professional Learning. See the full list of the Standards for Professional Learning below.

A common attribute of effective schools is collaboration among educators. Engagement in one or more learning communities provides teachers opportunities to moderate their practice and expectations with their peers, to examine and reflect on their work together, to learn from one another, to challenge one another professionally, and to solve complex problems within the context of their unique work environment. The favourable environment provides essential features and ingredients that could make headway in guiding the processes and methodologies needed for a smooth linkage among the three.

The Learner 4. His body experiences sensations, and feels pleasure and pain. His soul is the principle of spiritual acts, the source of intellectual abstraction, self reflection, and free rational volition. It determines their capacity to understand and assimilate information for their own use and application. It indicates a natural capacity to learn certain skills.

Lessons that give the learners the chance to express themselves will be more meaningful and easily absorbed. Verbal-linguistic Intelligence2. Logical-mathematical Intelligence3. Spatial Intelligence4.

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6 elements of great teaching

Bodily-kinaesthetic Intelligence5. Musical Intelligence6. Interpersonal Intelligence7. Intrapersonal Intelligence8. Naturalist Intelligence Sensing-thinking Mastery Learner 2. Intuitive thinking Understanding Learner 3. Intuitive-Feeling Self-Expressive Learner 4. Sensing-Feeling Interpersonal Learner The Teacher The professional teacher is the one who went through four to five year period of rigorous academic preparation in teaching and one who is given a license to teach by the Board of Professional Teachers of the Professional Regulation Commission after fulfilling requirements prescribed by law such as the Licensure Examination for Teachers LET.

The personality they project determines they make upon students and colleagues. They must be consistent, true and authentic.

Introduction to the Elements of Music

Passionate teachers exude spontaneity in ministering to the needs of the students especially those experiencing learning difficulties. It is an essential quality of teachers that serves a number of purposes. Values and AttitudesTeachers are model of values. Values connote standards, code of ethics and strong beliefs. Open-mindedness is basic in promoting respect and trust between teachers and studentsb. Fairness and impartiality eliminates discrimination. Teachers must be unbiased and objective in judging their students work and performance.


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Professionalism is highly treasured in the teaching profession. Teachers are adjudged professional if they are knowledgeable, skilled and value-laden. Patient teachers can forego momentous frustrations and disappointments. EnthusiasmEnthusiasm is synonymous to eagerness and excitement. Enthusiastic teachers are full of energy and dynamism.

With enthusiastic teachers, students look forward to any activity they can participate in with them. It is an unwavering pledge to perform all teaching and learning activities with consistency and selflessness to the best interest of the students under their care.

Second Edition

However, to environment, he owes the realization of these possibilities. IntroductionThe learning environment is the place where teaching and learning can take place in the most effective and productive manner. It consists of the classroom and all the instructional features and the non-threatening classroom climate needed in planning and implementing all teaching and learning activities.

Arrangement of FurnitureThe furniture, like the table for demonstration located in front of the room and the chairs facing it are neatly arranged with sufficient spaces in- between for ease in moving around. Display shelves for safekeeping of projects, collections and outstanding work are located at the sides. Attached to the wall is the bulletin board for hanging posters, announcements and illustrations about the unit being undertaken. During discussions, the board in front is used for clarifying step-by-step procedures and making clearer diagrams, illustrations and figures.

Teaching devices like globes, maps and charts are kept in nearby cabinets, together with simple tools and materials. Physical Condition of the ClassroomAs soon as the students enter they are attracted by a clean and orderly set-up.


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  5. Natural light and flowing fresh air add to their comfort and ease. The doors and windows could be opened and closed with less difficulty and noise.

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